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Under the final division agreed by the Carolingian family under the Treaty of Verdun, the first east Frankish kingdom was created which included all German land east of the river Rhine (except Frisia which was included in the kingdom of Lotharingia) and the west bank territories of the bishoprics of Mainz, Speyer and Worms.
As the Carolingian Frankish empire weakened, local entities acquired positions of greater political and military importance.
In 831, he was also granted Thuringia, Saxony, Frisia and the northernmost lands west of the Rhine.
His half-brother Charles received Alemannia, Alsace and lands along the upper Meuse and Moselle.
While the accession of King Heinrich V in 1106 does not appear to have been elective, the principle was reaffirmed in 1125 with the selection of his successor Lothar von Spplingenburg Duke of Saxony.
On that occasion, ten representatives were selected from each of the ancient German tribal divisions, Bavaria, Franconia, Saxony and Swabia, on the suggestion of Adalbert Archbishop of Mainz who dominated the proceedings By the mid-12th century, the archbishops of Kln, Mainz and Trier had firmly established themselves as the spiritual representatives in the electoral process. Eike von Repgau, in his compilation of customary law written in the early 1220s, recognised six electors, specifically excluding the king of Bohemia.
His success is demonstrated by his ability to intervene in securing the appointment of Hermann [Konradiner] as duke of Swabia in 926, the first of many such grants to the nobility as a reward for service and support.
Continuing to hold the office was dependent on the appointee's continued loyalty, and offices were frequently withdrawn by the king at will.
For instance, King Heinrich III retained the duchies of Bavaria, Swabia, and Carinthia in his own hands.The others included the Saxons, Frisians, Thuringians, Swabians and Bavarians.II "der Deutsche", son of Emperor Louis I, was the first member of the Carolingian dynasty to be installed as a ruler in Germany when he received the kingdom of Bavaria in 825.By contrast, King Heinrich IV retained little personal territory.The process resulted in the creation of rival centres of power which challenged the central regal authority, particularly apparent during the reign of King Heinrich IV when two anti-kings emerged.